Computer Science - Online and Distance Education

Computer Science

 

Courses

The CSC GCP requires a total of 12 credit hours of graduate-level Computer Science courses taken  for a grade. There is no prescribed list of courses for the certificate; students may take a  combination of courses tailored to their interests and needs, subject to course prerequisites. The  following courses are regularly offered online and would be available to both on-campus and  distance students; all other Computer Science graduate courses are available to on-campus  students. 

CSC 501 - Operating Systems Principles

Units: 3

Fundamental issues related to the design of operating systems. Process scheduling and coordination, deadlock, memory management and elements of distributed systems.

Offered in Fall and Spring

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2022 Fall Term

CSC 505 - Design and Analysis Of Algorithms

Units: 3

Algorithm design techniques: use of data structures, divide and conquer, dynamic programming, greedy techniques, local and global search. Complexity and analysis of algorithms: asymptotic analysis, worst case and average case, recurrences, lower bounds, NP-completeness. Algorithms for classical problems including sorting, searching and graph problems [connectivity, shortest paths, minimum spanning trees].

Offered in Fall Spring Summer

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2022 Summer Term 1 2022 Fall Term

CSC 506 - Architecture Of Parallel Computers

Units: 3

The need for parallel and massively parallel computers. Taxonomy of parallel computer architecture, and programming models for parallel architectures. Example parallel algorithms. Shared-memory vs. distributed-memory architectures. Correctness and performance issues. Cache coherence and memory consistency. Bus-based and scalable directory-based multiprocessors. Interconnection-network topologies and switch design. Brief overview of advanced topics such as multiprocessor prefetching and speculative parallel execution. Credit is not allowed for more than one course in this set: ECE 406, ECE 506, CSC 406.

Offered in Fall Spring Summer

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2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

CSC 510 - Software Engineering

Units: 3

An introduction to software life cycle models; size estimation; cost and schedule estimation; project management; risk management; formal technical reviews; analysis, design, coding and testing methods; configuration management and change control; and software reliability estimation. Emphasis on large development projects. An individual project required following good software engineering practices throughout the semester.

Offered in Fall and Spring

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2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

CSC 517 - Object-Oriented Design and Development

Units: 3

The design of object-oriented systems, using principles such as the GRASP principles, and methodologies such as CRC cards and the Unified Modeling Language [ULM]. Requirements analysis. Design patterns Agile Methods. Static vs. dynamic typing. Metaprogramming. Open-source development practices and tools. Test-first development. Project required, involving contributions to an open-source software project.

Offered in Fall and Spring

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2022 Spring Term

CSC 520 - Artificial Intelligence I

Units: 3

Introduction to and overview of artificial intelligence. Study of AI programming language such as LISP or PROLOG. Elements of AI problem-solving technique. State spaces and search techniques. Logic, theorem proving and associative databases. Introduction to knowledge representation, expert systems and selected topics including natural language processing, vision and robotics.

Offered in Fall and Spring

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2022 Fall Term

CSC 522 - Automated Learning and Data Analysis

Units: 3

This course provides an introduction to concepts and methods for extracting knowledge or other useful forms of information from data. This activity, also known under names including data mining, knowledge discovery, and exploratory data analysis, plays an important role in modern science, engineering, medicine, business, and government. Students will apply supervised and unsupervised automated learning methods to extract patterns, make predictions and identify groups from data. Students will also learn about the overall process of data collection and analysis that provides the setting for knowledge discovery, and concomitant issues of privacy and security. Examples and projects introduce the students to application areas including electronic commerce, information security, biology, and medicine. Students cannot get credit for both CSC 422 and CSC 522.

Offered in Fall and Spring

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2022 Fall Term

CSC 540 - Database Management concepts and Systems

Units: 3

Advanced database concepts. Logical organization of databases: the entity-relationship model; the relational data model and its languages. Functional dependencies and normal forms. Design, implementation, and optimization of query languages; security and integrity, consurrency control, transaction processing, and distributed database systems.

Offered in Fall and Spring

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2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

CSC 555 - Social Computing and Decentralized Artificial Intelligence

Units: 3

This course surveys the field of social computing, introducing its key concepts, paradigms, and techniques. Specific topics are selected from the following list: social media and social network analytics, sociological underpinnings, crowdsourcing and surveys, human computation, social mobilization, human decision making, voting theory, judgment aggregation, prediction markets, economic mechanisms, incentives, organizational modeling, argumentation, contracts, norms, mobility and social context, sociotechnical systems, and software engineering with and for social computing. This course incorporates ideas from diverse disciplines [including sociology, psychology, law, economics, political science, logic, statistics, philosophy, business] to provide essential background for future computer science careers in industry and research.

Offered in Fall Only

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2022 Fall Term

CSC 570 - Computer Networks

Units: 3

General introduction to computer networks. Discussion of protocol principles, local area and wide area networking, OSI stack, TCP/IP and quality of service principles. Detailed discussion of topics in medium access control, error control coding, and flow control mechanisms. Introduction to networking simulation, security, wireless and optical networking.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

CSC 573 - Internet Protocols

Units: 3

Principles and issues underlying provision of wide area connectivity through interconnection of autonomous networks. Internet architecture and protocols today and likely evolution in future. Case studies of particular protocols to demonstrate how fundamental principles applied in practice. Selected examples of networked clinet/server applications to motivate the functional requirements of internetworking. Project required.

Offered in Fall Spring Summer

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2022 Fall Term

CSC 574 - Computer and Network Security

Units: 3

This course presents foundational concepts of computer and network security and privacy. It covers a wide breadth of concepts, including; Fundamentals of computer security and privacy, including security models, policies, and mechanisms; Cryptography for secure systems, including symmetric and asymmetric ciphers, hash functions, and integrity mechanisms; Authentication of users and computers; Network attacks and defenses at the network and application layers; Common software vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies; Secure operating systems and seminal access control models and policies; Principles of intrusion detection; Privacy, including considerations of end-user technologies.

Offered in Fall and Spring

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2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

CSC 575 - Introduction to Wireless Networking

Units: 3

Introduction to cellular communications, wireless local area networks, ad-hoc and IP infrastructures. Topics include: cellular networks, mobility mannagement, connection admission control algorithms, mobility models, wireless IP networks, ad-hoc routing, sensor networks, quality of service, and wireless security.

Offered in Spring Only

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2022 Spring Term

CSC 579 - Introduction to Computer Performance Modeling

Units: 3

Workload characterization, collection and analysis of performance data, instrumentation, tuning, analytic models including queuing network models and operational analysis, economic considerations.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Summer Term 1 2022 Fall Term

CSC 591 - Special Topics In Computer Science

Units: 1 - 6

Topics of current interest in computer science not covered in existing courses.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

CSC 750 - Service-Oriented Computing

Units: 3

Concepts, theories, and techniques for computing with services. This course examines architectures for Web applications based on the classical publish, find, and bind triangle, but formulates it at a higher level. It considers sophisticated approaches for the description, discovery, and engagement of services, especially over the Web and the Grid. This course emphasizes service composition. Key topics include semantics, transactions, processes, agents, quality of service, compliance, and trust.

Offered in Fall Only

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Graduate certificate students may also specialize in one of several computer science areas by taking courses in one of the following tracks:

  • Computer Science Foundations Track

Systems core (complete two courses) :

CSC 501 - Operating Systems Principles

Units: 3

Fundamental issues related to the design of operating systems. Process scheduling and coordination, deadlock, memory management and elements of distributed systems.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 506 - Architecture Of Parallel Computers

Units: 3

The need for parallel and massively parallel computers. Taxonomy of parallel computer architecture, and programming models for parallel architectures. Example parallel algorithms. Shared-memory vs. distributed-memory architectures. Correctness and performance issues. Cache coherence and memory consistency. Bus-based and scalable directory-based multiprocessors. Interconnection-network topologies and switch design. Brief overview of advanced topics such as multiprocessor prefetching and speculative parallel execution. Credit is not allowed for more than one course in this set: ECE 406, ECE 506, CSC 406.

Offered in Fall Spring Summer

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

CSC 510 - Software Engineering

Units: 3

An introduction to software life cycle models; size estimation; cost and schedule estimation; project management; risk management; formal technical reviews; analysis, design, coding and testing methods; configuration management and change control; and software reliability estimation. Emphasis on large development projects. An individual project required following good software engineering practices throughout the semester.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

CSC 514 - Foundations of Cryptography

Units: 3

Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques for securing digital information, systems and distributed computation against adversarial attacks. In this class you will learn the concepts and the algorithms behind the most used cryptographic protocols: you will learn how to formally define security properties and how to formally prove/disprove that a cryptographic protocol achieves a certain security property. You will also discover that cryptography has a much broader range of applications. It solves absolutely paradoxical problems such as proving knowledge of a secret without ever revealing the secret [zero-knowledge proof], or computing the output of a function without ever knowing the input of the function [secure computation]. Finally, we will look closely at one of the recent popular application of cryptography: the blockchain technology. Additionally, graduate students will study some of the topics in greater depth.

Offered in Fall Only

CSC 520 - Artificial Intelligence I

Units: 3

Introduction to and overview of artificial intelligence. Study of AI programming language such as LISP or PROLOG. Elements of AI problem-solving technique. State spaces and search techniques. Logic, theorem proving and associative databases. Introduction to knowledge representation, expert systems and selected topics including natural language processing, vision and robotics.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 540 - Database Management concepts and Systems

Units: 3

Advanced database concepts. Logical organization of databases: the entity-relationship model; the relational data model and its languages. Functional dependencies and normal forms. Design, implementation, and optimization of query languages; security and integrity, consurrency control, transaction processing, and distributed database systems.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

CSC 561 - Principles of Computer Graphics

Units: 3

Fundamentals of the OpenGL API. 2D and 3D transformations, perspective and orthographic projection, and the mathematical foundations that underlie these concepts. Geometric primitives, clipping, depth buffering, scan conversion, and rasterization. Lighting, shadows, and texture mapping. Curves and surfaces.

Offered in Fall Only

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 570 - Computer Networks

Units: 3

General introduction to computer networks. Discussion of protocol principles, local area and wide area networking, OSI stack, TCP/IP and quality of service principles. Detailed discussion of topics in medium access control, error control coding, and flow control mechanisms. Introduction to networking simulation, security, wireless and optical networking.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

Theory core (complete two courses) :

CSC 503 - Computational Applied Logic

Units: 3

Introduction to the conceptual and formal apparatus of mathematical logic, to mathematical concepts underlying the process of logical formalization, and to the applications of various logics across a broad spectrum of problems in computer science and artificial intelligence.

Offered in Fall Only

CSC 505 - Design and Analysis Of Algorithms

Units: 3

Algorithm design techniques: use of data structures, divide and conquer, dynamic programming, greedy techniques, local and global search. Complexity and analysis of algorithms: asymptotic analysis, worst case and average case, recurrences, lower bounds, NP-completeness. Algorithms for classical problems including sorting, searching and graph problems [connectivity, shortest paths, minimum spanning trees].

Offered in Fall Spring Summer

Find this course:

2022 Summer Term 1 2022 Fall Term

CSC 512 - Compiler Construction

Units: 3

The course will concentrate on the theory and practice of compiler-writing. Topics to be covered will include techniques for parsing, code generation, and optimization. Furthermore, the theoretical underpinnings of compilers such as LR parsing will be covered. Finally, the students will be exposed to compiler construction tools, and will obtain hands-on experience in building a compiler for a small programming language. Besides the listed prerequisite courses, other helpful courses include CSC 253, CSC 224, CSC 234, and MA 121.

Offered in Fall Only

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 565 - Graph Theory

Units: 3

Basic concepts of graph theory. Trees and forests. Vector spaces associated with a graph. Representation of graphs by binary matrices and list structures. Traversability. Connectivity. Matchings and assignment problems. Planar graphs. Colorability. Directed graphs. Applications of graph theory with emphasis on organizing problems in a form suitable for computer solution.

Offered in Spring Only

YEAR: Offered Alternate Even Years

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CSC 574 - Computer and Network Security

Units: 3

This course presents foundational concepts of computer and network security and privacy. It covers a wide breadth of concepts, including; Fundamentals of computer security and privacy, including security models, policies, and mechanisms; Cryptography for secure systems, including symmetric and asymmetric ciphers, hash functions, and integrity mechanisms; Authentication of users and computers; Network attacks and defenses at the network and application layers; Common software vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies; Secure operating systems and seminal access control models and policies; Principles of intrusion detection; Privacy, including considerations of end-user technologies.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

CSC 579 - Introduction to Computer Performance Modeling

Units: 3

Workload characterization, collection and analysis of performance data, instrumentation, tuning, analytic models including queuing network models and operational analysis, economic considerations.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Summer Term 1 2022 Fall Term

CSC 580 - Numerical Analysis I

Units: 3

Algorithm behavior and applicability. Effect of roundoff errors, systems of linear equations and direct methods, least squares via Givens and Householder transformations, stationary and Krylov iterative methods, the conjugate gradient and GMRES methods, convergence of method.

Offered in Fall Only

CSC 707 - Automata, Languages and Computability Theory

Units: 3

Formal models of language and computation; finite automata and regular languages, pushdown automata and context-free languages, Turing machines. Relative power of models, Chomsky hierarchy. Inherent complexity of problems: undecidability, computational complexity, intractable problems.

Offered in Fall Only

  • Networking Track

Core courses (complete at least one) :

CSC 570 - Computer Networks

Units: 3

General introduction to computer networks. Discussion of protocol principles, local area and wide area networking, OSI stack, TCP/IP and quality of service principles. Detailed discussion of topics in medium access control, error control coding, and flow control mechanisms. Introduction to networking simulation, security, wireless and optical networking.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

CSC 573 - Internet Protocols

Units: 3

Principles and issues underlying provision of wide area connectivity through interconnection of autonomous networks. Internet architecture and protocols today and likely evolution in future. Case studies of particular protocols to demonstrate how fundamental principles applied in practice. Selected examples of networked clinet/server applications to motivate the functional requirements of internetworking. Project required.

Offered in Fall Spring Summer

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

Elective courses:

CSC 574 - Computer and Network Security

Units: 3

This course presents foundational concepts of computer and network security and privacy. It covers a wide breadth of concepts, including; Fundamentals of computer security and privacy, including security models, policies, and mechanisms; Cryptography for secure systems, including symmetric and asymmetric ciphers, hash functions, and integrity mechanisms; Authentication of users and computers; Network attacks and defenses at the network and application layers; Common software vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies; Secure operating systems and seminal access control models and policies; Principles of intrusion detection; Privacy, including considerations of end-user technologies.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

CSC 575 - Introduction to Wireless Networking

Units: 3

Introduction to cellular communications, wireless local area networks, ad-hoc and IP infrastructures. Topics include: cellular networks, mobility mannagement, connection admission control algorithms, mobility models, wireless IP networks, ad-hoc routing, sensor networks, quality of service, and wireless security.

Offered in Spring Only

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term

CSC 577 - Switched Network Management

Units: 3

Topics related to design and management of campus enterprise networks, including VLAN design; virtualization and automation methodologies for management; laboratory use of open space source and commercial tools for managing such networks.

Offered in Fall Only

CSC 591 - Special Topics In Computer Science

Units: 1 - 6

Topics of current interest in computer science not covered in existing courses.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

-

Units:

CSC 774 - Advanced Network Security

Units: 3

A study of network security policies, models, and mechanisms. Topics include: network security models; review of cryptographic techniques; internet key management protocols; electronic payments protocols and systems; intrusion detection and correlation; broadcast authentication; group key management; security in mobile ad-hoc networks; security in sensor networks.

Offered in Spring Only

  • Security/Privacy Track

Core course:

CSC 574 - Computer and Network Security

Units: 3

This course presents foundational concepts of computer and network security and privacy. It covers a wide breadth of concepts, including; Fundamentals of computer security and privacy, including security models, policies, and mechanisms; Cryptography for secure systems, including symmetric and asymmetric ciphers, hash functions, and integrity mechanisms; Authentication of users and computers; Network attacks and defenses at the network and application layers; Common software vulnerabilities and mitigation strategies; Secure operating systems and seminal access control models and policies; Principles of intrusion detection; Privacy, including considerations of end-user technologies.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

Elective courses (complete at least three) :

CSC 514 - Foundations of Cryptography

Units: 3

Cryptography is the study of mathematical techniques for securing digital information, systems and distributed computation against adversarial attacks. In this class you will learn the concepts and the algorithms behind the most used cryptographic protocols: you will learn how to formally define security properties and how to formally prove/disprove that a cryptographic protocol achieves a certain security property. You will also discover that cryptography has a much broader range of applications. It solves absolutely paradoxical problems such as proving knowledge of a secret without ever revealing the secret [zero-knowledge proof], or computing the output of a function without ever knowing the input of the function [secure computation]. Finally, we will look closely at one of the recent popular application of cryptography: the blockchain technology. Additionally, graduate students will study some of the topics in greater depth.

Offered in Fall Only

CSC 515 - Software Security

Units: 3

Introduces students to the discipline of designing, developing, and testing secure and dependable software-based systems. Students will learn about risks and vulnerabilities, and effective software security techniques. Topics include common vulnerabilities, access control, information leakage, logging, usability, risk analysis, testing, design principles, security policies, and privacy. Project required.

Offered in Spring Only

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term

CSC 705 - Operating Systems Security

Units: 3

Fundamentals and advanced topics in operating system [OS] security. Study OS level mechanisms and policies in investigating and defending against real-world attacks on computer systems, such as self-propagating worms, stealthy rootkits and large-scale botnets. OS security techniques such as authentication, system call monitoring, as well as memory protection. Introduce recent advanced techniques such as system-level randomization and hardware virtualization.

Offered in Spring Only

Find this course:

CSC 774 - Advanced Network Security

Units: 3

A study of network security policies, models, and mechanisms. Topics include: network security models; review of cryptographic techniques; internet key management protocols; electronic payments protocols and systems; intrusion detection and correlation; broadcast authentication; group key management; security in mobile ad-hoc networks; security in sensor networks.

Offered in Spring Only

CSC 533 - Privacy in the Digital Age

Units: 3

Privacy is a growing concern in our modern society. We interact and share our personal information with a wide variety of organizations, including financial and healthcare institutions, web service providers and social networks. Many times such personal information is inappropriately collected, used or shared, often without our awareness. This course introduces privacy in a broad sense, with the aim of providing students an overview of the challenging and emerging research topics in privacy. This course will expose students to many of the issues that privacy engineers, program managers, researchers and designers deal with in industry. ST 370 is recommended but not mandatory.

Offered in Fall Only

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 591 - Special Topics In Computer Science

Units: 1 - 6

Topics of current interest in computer science not covered in existing courses.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

  • Systems Track

Core courses (complete at least one) :

CSC 501 - Operating Systems Principles

Units: 3

Fundamental issues related to the design of operating systems. Process scheduling and coordination, deadlock, memory management and elements of distributed systems.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 548 - Parallel Systems

Units: 3

Basic concepts of parallel computation; parallel programming models and algorithm design; load balancing and performance optimization; parallel I/0 and high-end storage systems; high performance parallel applications.

Offered in Fall Only

Elective courses:

CSC 506 - Architecture Of Parallel Computers

Units: 3

The need for parallel and massively parallel computers. Taxonomy of parallel computer architecture, and programming models for parallel architectures. Example parallel algorithms. Shared-memory vs. distributed-memory architectures. Correctness and performance issues. Cache coherence and memory consistency. Bus-based and scalable directory-based multiprocessors. Interconnection-network topologies and switch design. Brief overview of advanced topics such as multiprocessor prefetching and speculative parallel execution. Credit is not allowed for more than one course in this set: ECE 406, ECE 506, CSC 406.

Offered in Fall Spring Summer

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Summer Term 1

CSC 512 - Compiler Construction

Units: 3

The course will concentrate on the theory and practice of compiler-writing. Topics to be covered will include techniques for parsing, code generation, and optimization. Furthermore, the theoretical underpinnings of compilers such as LR parsing will be covered. Finally, the students will be exposed to compiler construction tools, and will obtain hands-on experience in building a compiler for a small programming language. Besides the listed prerequisite courses, other helpful courses include CSC 253, CSC 224, CSC 234, and MA 121.

Offered in Fall Only

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 547 - Cloud Computing Technology

Units: 3

Study of cloud computing principles, architectures, and actual implementations. Students will learn how to critically evaluate cloud solutions, how to construct and secure a private cloud computing environment based on open source solutions, and how to federate it with external clouds. Performance, security, cost, usability, and utility of cloud computing solutions will be studied both theoretically and in hands-on exercises. Hardware-, infrastructure-, platform-, software-, security-, - "as-a-service".

Offered in Spring Only

Find this course:

2022 Fall Term

CSC 568 - Enterprise Storage Architecture

Units: 3

An introduction to storage systems architecture in an enterprise. Begins with a review of the individual components of a system [eg, hard disk drives, network interfaces], and shows how to aggregate those into storage systems. Tradeoffs involving factors such as cost, complexity, availability, power and performance. Discussion of information management strategies, including data migration. Guest lectures by representatives from local industry. Students work in teams on a semester-long project.

Offered in Spring Only

CSC 591 - Special Topics In Computer Science

Units: 1 - 6

Topics of current interest in computer science not covered in existing courses.

Offered in Fall and Spring

Find this course:

2022 Spring Term 2022 Fall Term

CSC 714 - Real Time Computer Systems

Units: 3

Design and implementation of computer systems required to provide specific response times. Structure of a real-time kernel, fixed and dynamic priority scheduling algorithms, rate monotonic scheduling theory, priority inheritance protocols, real-timebenchmarks, case study of a real-time kernel.

Offered in Spring Only

YEAR: Offered Alternate Years

CSC 724 - Advanced Distributed Systems

Units: 3

Principles in the design and implementation of modern distributed systems; recent techniques used by real-world distributed systems such as peer-to-peer file sharing, enterprise data center, and internet search engines; state-of-the-art architectures, algorithms, and performance evaluation methodologies in distributed systems.

Offered in Spring Only

YEAR: Offered Alternate Odd Years

CSC 766 - Code Optimization for Scalar and Parallel Programs

Units: 3

Advanced research issues in code optimization for scalar and parallel programs; program analysis, scalar and parallel optimizations as well as various related advanced topics.

Offered in Spring Only

Academic Performance Requirements

  • The CS graduate certificate requires a total of 12 credit hours.
  • To receive a graduate certificate, a student must maintain a minimum 3.00 grade point average (GPA) on graduate certificate coursework taken at NC State. Graduate certificate grades on courses taken towards the Graduate certificate in courses numbered 500 and above are included in the GPA. Any courses taken at the 400 level and below are not eligible for certificate credit.
  • All courses taken for certificate credit must be completed with a grade of "B-" or better.
  • All courses at the 500- or 700-level taken for certificate credit must be letter-graded. Credit-only courses cannot be used for certificate credit.
  • Transfer credit from other institutions is not allowed for the Graduate certificate. All coursework must be registered through NC State University.
  • Up to three (3) hours of PBS coursework, if not already used in another graduate program, may be transferred into the Graduate certificate. All transfer credit must carry a grade of B or better.